Information regarding the Points Page
How they are set-up, how references are being used, and why each section is there.
I have had some questions on the Points pages including how references are being used and why there are certain section and other sections they think I need are not there. The best way to explain this is to go
through each section of the pages.
1. Date Section. Included in this section is the dates which are listed in B.P (before present) which for some reason ended in 1950 (yes I know why). Many people have
started using BCE (Before Common Era), but so far I have not converted. This information has been pulled from the general references that are listed in the bottom right-hand corner of the page. No
specific person is cited in this section because this is general information from all sources. I have included the cultural and the glacial, and in some cases environmental periods for dates. I am not
sure that these are the correct terms, I created them in order to distinguish between each period. There was some debate which period should be listed. Many people only list the cultural period which
shows a change in the technology and re-formed the structure of the societies (Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, ect.). Other people list the glacial periods because as the environment changed a change was need in the
social structure in order to survive (Holocene, Neoglacial, ect). In some cases Canadian researchers have their own environmental conditions listed (Sandick, Neo-Atlantic, ect) which I have included in points
that extend into Canada. I have also included the Culture (when available) here because this has a direct correlation with the dating of the points.
2. Name Section. Information for this section is pulled from the general references listed on the bottom right-hand box of each page. The most common name is listed first
and the AKA (also known as if there is one) is listed below the name. AKA's include a type that was named in two regions that was unknown to represent the same type at the time of naming due to missing or
incorrect information on distributions or age. This section also includes misspellings of the point that are in published form, but does not include misspellings in electronic form (websites can easily correct
a name, in books the name will persist). Information regarding other names is listed in the Additional Comments when it is available. The last line is the cluster that this point belongs to when that
information is present. This information will be expanded upon greatly in the future and will be addressed on this website in the future.
3. Distribution. This information has been drawn from a multitude of sources including the general references listed in the bottom right-hand corner of each page. It also
is drawn from known examples and other sites that have reported that type being found there. Every know point found is plotted on a map and a map of geographical structures are overlaid upon the map. This
helps show the geographical boundaries of the type. This method works great when there are many examples to plot from, and may be off on types that have few examples to plot from. This information is then
compared to all know distributions listed from other references to ensure that the distribution map is as accurate as possible. When other distribution maps are available (Noel Justice did a great job at
distributions and his maps were heavily relied upon when available), they are also used to ensure accurate. Some examples appear to be trade or prestige points. These are examples that are so far out of
the distribution area and generally made from material within the distribution area. These examples are not included in the plotting of distribution. Some of the maps have both a red and a yellow
distribution. For these types the red zone is the primary distribution and the yellow distribution is where these point are no longer found in any concentrations, but scattered through-out the area. This
may represent trade zones or hunting and migration patterns which drew them away from the core area. I strive to keep these maps as accurate as possible, but they are only based on the information I currently
have, If I have missed any additional information (and with all the information out there, I'm sure that I have missed a lot of it), then distributions may extend beyond where I currently have them. If
you see this please let me know so I can update it.
4.General Outline. This is an attempt to capture the most stereo-typical example. Many types have a great amount of variation which is hard to capture in a single picture, but
that is what I have tried to do. These outlines were first drawn, and used extensively, when the website was first published in 2008. I have gotten a lot more pictures since that time so they are not as
important as they were at first. I still use them and update them whenever I found one that does not capture the stereo-typical example.
5. Description of Physical Characteristics and Flaking Patterns. This information is drawn from the general references listed at the bottom right-hand corner of each page and all
available examples. All sources are reviewed and all examples are reviewed before and while the description is being written. I personally write every description. I had problems with the way
descriptions would change from one type to the next even when they were written by the same person. I have strived for follow a format for every point described. The format I use is size, shape, notch
type, cross section, blade, shoulders, stem, base, flaking pattern. I use this same formation for every point every time. This helps when there are two points you are distinguishing between because you
can go through the description line by line to see the difference. Some points have information that is not included in other types, but the basic formula is always there.
6. Commonly Utilized Material. This is a new section that was someone suggested that I add. This should help understand migration patterns for raw material or help
distinguish between types. This information will be drawn from the general references or will be specifically cited if not listed below. Most points do not currently have this information added, but iit
will be added as information becomes available in the future.
7. Age Details. This is a new section that is being added to the new pages. This information will be cited and will not rely upon the general references. This section
will list radiocarbon dates from specific sites and phases from specific areas that the type is associated with.
8. Additional Comments. This is information that does not have a specific section listed for it. General references are not used in this section. All sources are
cited where applicable. There are personal thoughts and theories that are sometimes listed in this section which may be determined by the lack of any citing.
9. Naming Details. This information is drawn from the general references listed on the bottom right-hand corner of each page and from internet searches in order to get the state
and county of type sites. This give proper credit to the person who identified the type. Where the type got it's name is listed (interesting), most professionals name the point after the type site or the
type site location because that is how it was discussed in the excavation reports. There are some variation to this, but most professional conform to this standard. Para-professionals and amateurs
tend to name points after people, places, and for other reasons. This may be due to the fact that they do not feel tied to the site the way a person who excavates a site does. All the information in this
section should give you what you need in order to pull the original publication that identified the type.
10. Point Validity. This is a new section that is being added to every page. I heard a lot of comments that people were making type up in order to make a name for themself.
I also had many people asking is specific types and names truly represented real types. This section is trying to address those concerns. The first part of the description is some basic information
regarding the person who identified and named the type. This helps build the creditability of the person who identified the type. Next is address where the type was named. This could be in a
professional publication, Master's Thesis, or a personal book. This information is important in establishing how valid the type is. There is a correct way to name a type that many people by-pass.
The correct way is to identify a type. A report should be written describing the type, the cultural affiliation and dating. The distribution if the type has been found at any other site. Similar
types and why it is not one of those types in the normal life-cycle of the point (new, re-sharpened, or exhausted). The new type should also be determined not be slightly different pervious type that could be a
result of the dominate had of the maker (left-handed beveling verses right-handed beveling). Identified types that are in any normal life-cycles or are a result of hand dominance should not be identified as a
new type. This report information is presented to other local professional who come to a consensus that this is truly a new type. This information is then presented in a peer to peer reviewed publication
which ensures that the type is valid. By publishing in a professional publication the information is then distributed to other professional who can then determine if they agree with the type. IF other
professional accept the new type they start to make references to the new type which solidifies it as a valid type. When a type is identified in a Master's Thesis, advisors still need to review and to some
extend accept the new type, but it lacks the distribution it needs in order to gain acceptance from other professionals. When a type is named in a personal book, no consensus is needed to name the point so the
new type may represent a known identified type that is in it's exhausted form. A great example of this is the Marianne and Dugway Stubby. Both of these types are exhausted forms of previously
existing types and are considered false types. There are four categories listed here. First is Valid Type. This is a type that has had professional acceptance and is
discussed as a true type in professional publications and books not written by the person who originally named the type. Provisional Type. This is a type that has been named in a
professional publication of personal book by a professional or para-professional and not considered a collectors type book. However, no other professional references to the type was able to be located.
This could be due to the lack of distribution of the information, or may be due to the lack of a detailed description which makes it difficult to identify one type from the other so identification from the two types
does not occur. This could also represent a rejection of the type as a unique and separate type. If the type was named decades ago and still has no professional acceptance, this could represent a flase
type. Collectors Type. This is a type that was named in a collectors source or a book that has many collectors references, but has no professional references to the type. A
great example of this it the Atlatl Valley type. It was named by a collector for a type found in Atlatl Valley, but has had no professional acceptance as a true type since it was first published in the 1950's.
However, this type is listed in every collectors source. Pending type. This is a type that has been identified by professional or collector sources, but has not professional
references. This type is so unique that it does not fit into any current type, but has such a limited distribution or is so site specific that more examples may not have been found in a professional context.
However, the type is so unique that when it is found in an excavation it will have to be addressed. False Type. This is a type that was named, but has been proved to be part of
another type that could be in the normal life-cycle of that type (new, re-sharpened, exhausted). This could be a named type that was named with little to no information regarding the type and is based on a
single or very few examples from surface collections. These could be types that are completely false. Details will be listed in the box.
11. Other Websites. These are other website I found that had detailed information regarding the type, has multiple pictures of examples of that type, or are related to the
culture of the type.
12. Similar Points. This is a list of similar appearing points that are found in within the distribution of the listed type. These points may not be
related to or even the same time period to the point listed, but has many of the same characteristics. If the list is too long, then points that are also in the same cluster may not be listed in this section so
you may check both sections.
13. Related / Associated points: These are points that have been reported to have being found with the listed point. These points may or may not have the
same appearance, but should be found in the same area as the listed type. This information has been drawn from the general references listed on the bottom right-hand corner of each page.
14. Other Points in This Cluster. This is a list of points that are similar to the listed point in both age, technique, and characteristics and have been
clustered together with the listed point. These points may or may not be found within the same distribution region, but stem from the same technology.
15. Pictures. These are pictures of examples of the listed type
16. Pictures provided by / Information provided by. These are the individuals who were gracious enough to share their pictures of the listed type, or provide
information to me regarding the type. This is where I give them credit for their contrabutions.
17. All Rights Reserved information and contact Information
18. References. These are the sources that I used to get the general information regarding the type listed. These are the sources that I read while making the page,
but I did not use any of the information directly. If I used any information from them directly, they were cited accordingly. To find these references open the Reference Page from the Main Homepage.
The numbers in the box correspond with the numbers on that page that are next to the references used. The top of the page is number and the bottom of the page has numbers that start with a W. These are
the websites I used for general information. Again, if there was any information used from the website directly it was cited specifically.